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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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Quick Info

2.95 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
49 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 17
Total Projects: 17
Priority SDGs: Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: Tigris & Euphrates
Priority Industries: Biotech, health care & pharma
Food, beverage & agriculture
Power generation
Organization Types:
NGO / Civil Society
International Organization
Multi-stakeholder Organization
Water Fund
Profile Completion: 82%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $12,661,670,147.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $1,243,336,768.00 - [10%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $3,088,388,672.00 - [24%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $876,110,671.00 - [7%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $429,555,959.00 - [3%]
  • Water Scarcity: $4,913,999,720.00 - [39%]
  • Water Management: $2,110,278,358.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

No challenges found.

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Turkey is divided into 25 hydrological basins with large differences in specific discharge (GDRS, 2003). Most of Turkey’s rivers originate within the country. There are more than 120 natural lakes and 677 artificial lakes1. Total gross internal renewable water resources are estimated at 227km3/year. About 186km3 of this total is surface water, 69km3 is groundwater, while 28km3 is considered to be the overlap between surface water and groundwater. Of this 234km3, 112 km3 is considered to be the annual net amount of economically and technically exploitable water2. Average surface runoff entering the country from Bulgaria and Syria is 1.8km3/year – 0.6km3 from the Tunca River coming from Bulgaria and 1.2km3 from the Asi-Orontes coming from Syria. The Meriç River, originating in Bulgaria, forms the border between Greece and Turkey. It has a flow of 5.8km3/year, of which half (2.9km3/year) is allocated to Turkey. Adding the incoming flow to the internal renewable water resources brings the total natural renewable water resources to 231.7km3/year. Of the total flow of 53.74km3/year leaving the country, 28.1km3 flows to Syria (of which 26.29km3 is the natural outflow of the Euphrates), 21.33km3 to Iraq (Tigris and affluent), and 4.31km3 to Georgia. Groundwater flows to other countries are estimated at 11km3/year; this includes 1.2km3/year to the Khabour Springs, which feed the Khabour River in Syria and which have their origin in groundwater coming from Turkey. Taking into consideration the outflow and the flows reserved between countries, the total actual renewable water resources are 213.56km3/year. Turkey contributes about 89 per cent of the total annual flow of the Euphrates, while the remaining part originates in Syria; nothing is added further downstream in Iraq. Turkey contributes 38 per cent directly to the main Tigris River and another 11 per cent to its tributaries joining the main river further downstream in Iraq. In general, the streams and rivers vary greatly in their flow from season to season and from year to year. For example, the Euphrates’ annual flow at the border with Syria ranged from 15.3km3 in 1961 to 42.7km3 in 1963. 1. State Hydraulic Works, http://www2.dsi.gov.tr/topraksu.htm 2. State Hydraulic Works, http://www2.dsi.gov.tr/topraksu.htm

1.1.2.WATER USE In 2008, the total water withdrawal was estimated at 46km3/year, of which 74 per cent was for irrigation, 15 per cent for municipal use and 11 per cent for industrial purposes. Demand for groundwater is rapidly increasing, especially in areas where there is a lack or an extreme shortage of surface water. In 2000, a quarter of the total water withdrawal of 42km3 was from groundwater, of which 39 per cent was for irrigation, 37 per cent for municipal use and 24 per cent for industry. Apart from private initiatives for various purposes, the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI) and former General Directorate of Rural Services (GDRS) had established irrigation facilities using groundwater to irrigate 5,058km2 of land (net irrigated area 4,341km2). Since 1975, non-conventional sources of water such as urban wastewater and drainage water have been used as water sources for irrigation. Urban wastewater discharged to the sewage systems was about 2.77km3 in 2006. The treated wastewater of about 1.68km3 is used in various ways. Its use for irrigation is limited to some dry provinces such as the central and south-eastern regions of Turkey, where almost 2,000km2 is irrigated by wastewater. In some irrigation areas, such as Seyhan and Harran, drainage water is used for irrigation during dry years at downstream end of the scheme where the water delivered is insufficient for irrigation. At present, no data for the amount of drainage water used for irrigation are available.

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Organizations in Turkey

Founded in 1955 in Istanbul, Arçelik A.Ş. (Arçelik),with its 13 brands (Arçelik, Beko, Grundig, Defy, Arctic, Dawlance, Elektrabregenz, Blomberg, VoltasBeko, Leisure,Altus,Flavel, Stinol) and more than 45.000 employees operates in the fields of durable consumer goods and consumer electronics with R&amp;D, … Learn More

Brisa Bridgestone Sabancı Lastik Sanayi ve Ticaret AŞ is one of Europe's biggest top seven tyre manufacturing companies. The company is commited to using energy and resources effectively for a sustainable environment-friendly production. Learn More

We are committed to conducting our business in an environmentally responsible manner, supporting the long-term health of the planet, the success of customers and our people. Our environmental sustainability strategy aims to drive climate action throughout our value chain, use … Learn More

Cummins is an American Fortune 500 corporation that designs, manufactures, and distributes engines, filtration, and power generation products. Learn More

Diageo plc is a British multinational alcoholic beverages company, with its headquarters in London, England. Diageo is the world's largest producer of spirits and a key producer of beer. Diageo's commitment to water stewardship is outlined in its Blueprint Water … Learn More

We are out to see ,forster a clean ,natural and healthy environment in every part of the world from our local milieu Learn More

We are a Water-saving transport equipment provider for infrastructure, building, and agriculture (HDPE, PVC, Drip, Pipe, and Fittings Equipment. Whether you've visited us before or recently discovered us, you'll find that our way of doing business is simply unique. Our … Learn More

To serve societies, individuals and families, within the affected areas around the world through a coordinated participatory relief and developmental intervention based on global sustainable development goals, standards of integrity and transparency, principles of humanitarian work, and relevant domestic and … Learn More

Management of water resources at the national and international level is not solely an engineering science subject. Therefore, the objectives of the Hydropolitics Association (HPA) are (1) to achieve results from work done with the common disciplines such as economics, … Learn More

Conserve water and help secure water access in those areas at greatest risk: Implement tools to reduce the water footprint of our hotels Mitigate water risk through stakeholder collaboration to deliver water stewardship at basin level Collaborate to ensure adequate … Learn More

For as long as nearly 70 years since its founding in 1949, Kurita Water Industries has been consistently operating in two areas of "water and the environment." To cater to diverse customer needs, the Kurita Group provides comprehensive solutions by … Learn More

The Nature Conservation Centre aims to find solutions by seeking to understand the complexities of nature, fulfilling the multi disciplinary needs of nature conservation through wise use of scientific information and intelligent and creative adaptation of scientific approaches. Mission Through … Learn More

Water stewardship has long been one of PepsiCo’s top priorities, and it's an important part of building a Positive Value Chain. As one of the first companies of our size to acknowledge water as a human right, we have a … Learn More

WATAN's mission is to develop a sustainable, healthy and educated community, based on inclusive society that positively engages, supports and improves the lives of each individual, regardless of their gender, faith or ethnicity. WATAN deliver programs that rebuild lives and … Learn More

Our Vision is widespread implementation of sustainable chemistry, driving innovations and best practices in textile, apparel and footwear industries to protect consumers, workers and the environment. Our Mission is to enable brands and retailers in the textile, apparel, and footwear … Learn More

People With Purpose Our world is constantly changing. So it's reassuring to know that there are some things we can always trust to help us take the best possible care of ourselves and the ones we love. This trust inspires … Learn More

As a private school, we raise and educate our students to be global citizens who have awareness of world problems and we are eager to solve them. This year we are starting a project called "Kids who change the world".We … Learn More

Projects in Turkey

We promote water management awareness-raising activities among our supply chain globally, led by Bridgestone. Moreover, our suppliers are requested to report on their water performance and are provided with support on how to effectively manage their water consumption. Project Results … Learn More

Our sites continue to regularly engage with community members on our water use, treatment and impacts in order to strengthen our links with the local community. We have strong relationships with regulators and engage with public policy makers to ensure … Learn More

Every Drop Matters (EDM) is a unique partnership between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Coca-Cola Company, which works across Europe and the CIS, the Arab States and Asia. Since they joined forces in 2006, the partners have … Learn More

In 2017, Inditex continued to integrate sustainability criteria for the use of water in all of its business areas, thanks to the implementation of its Global Water Management Strategy. The rational use of water and zero discharge commitment of undesirable … Learn More

Using hydropower without harming the river ecosystemAral�k is a run-off river type hydroelectric power plant, generating energy from the running waters of Aral�k Creek, with a total installed capacity of 12.41 MW, leading to a CO2-reduction above 30,000t per year. … Learn More

In order to reduce the dependency on water withdrawal from groundwater sources, Brisa has conducted a feasibility study for installing an Industrial Wastewater Recovery Plant within its Izmit Production Facility (Marmara Basin) in order to reduce the water withdrawal demand. … Learn More

Solaklar Landfill Area, in the Kocaeli Province, Turkey, covers 3 million square meters, Solaklar Landfill is the largest in the municipality and accepts an average of 570 tonnes of municipal waste each day. This landfill gas recovery and utilisation project … Learn More

This project sought to improve land and water use efficiency and improve the local ecosystem through a variety of conservation agricultural practices, including: direct seeded fields, wind breaks, crop rotation strategies, monitoring, and a crop calendar adapted to climate change. Learn More

Building on over a decade of focus on operational water efficiency, P&amp;G is now working towards a holistic water stewardship strategy throughout its value chain. An evaluation of water risks across the life cycle of its products helped P&amp;G select … Learn More

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our … Learn More

At Kışladağ we use a site water balance model to increase the recycling and reuse of contact water, minimize groundwater consumption, and reduce risks attributable to overflow and supply constraints. The model helps us monitor our water reserves, adjust our … Learn More

With strong and steady winds, the west coast of Turkey is ideal for wind energy. The Yuntdag wind farm supported by First Climate lies approximately 60 km north of Izmir. The project comprises 17 wind turbines with a rotor diameter … Learn More

Through LightStay, every hotel in our portfolio is required to regularly report and monitor all sources of water use against an improvement goal. In addition to this, hotels are required to always have an active water-related sustainability improvement project registered. … Learn More

Bring the water quality from “low” to “good” status (according to the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization standards), especially in highly polluted critical spots; Create a basin wide partnership with agreed conservation targets in key biodiversity areas; reduce water, chemicals … Learn More

The YES_L Hydro Electric Power Plant (HEPP) is a grid-connected small-scale hydropower plant with a run-of-river reservoir in Sivas province, Turkey. The total installed capacity of the Project is 14 MW, comprising three 4.666 MW turbines, with a predicted electricity … Learn More

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